Acoustic analysis, the study of various acoustic phenomena in piping and structural systems that have acoustic exciters such as valves, ducts, cavities (shallow or deep), is necessary to identify any potential sources in a given system and design a solution to mitigate the potential effects, typically failure through fatigue. Acoustic resonance is the main phenomena in question and it is a gaseous fluid flow issue, typically but not limited to air or steam. Issues that result from acoustic phenomena have been observed in power (Nuclear, Fossil), oil and gas and industrial systems. Acoustic resonance can lead to flow induced vibration. Different acoustic phenomena often present themselves in systems and go unnoticed until there is a failure in the system. Examples of acoustic phenomena are column resonance, Helmholtz resonance and trapped mode acoustics.
Illustration of vortex shedding (an acoustic resonance exciter) across a valve cavity and the acoustic pressure waves that result; these waves can act as loads on components in a system and lead to cyclic fatigue failure.