When goods are to be transported, there are many regulations that need to be followed in order to assess and classify the hazards associated with the specific material. This can be an important factor in the design and commercialization of a specific good. Slight changes in the composition of the material may not change the overall end use of the product but could possibly result in a change in its hazard classification.
Fauske and Associates, LLC (FAI) has extensive experience in characterizing the explosive or flammable nature of solids, liquids, vapors and gases. With this expertise, we are proud to offer a suite of UN/DOT testing of potentially dangerous goods. “Dangerous goods” may be pure chemical substances, mixtures, or manufactured articles.
FAI offers the following testing services to help determine the proper shipping classification for the following types of hazards:
Ignition Distance, Enclosed Space Ignition, Foam Flammability, and Heat of Combustion tests are used to determine the flammability properties of aerosol materials.
Ignition Distance testing is used to determine the ignition distance of an aerosol spray to assess the associated flame risk in an open environment. The aerosol is sprayed in the direction of an ignition source at intervals of 15 cm to observe if an ignition, sustained combustion, or flashback of the spray takes place.
Enclosed Space Ignition is used to determine the propensity for an aerosol spray to ignite in an enclosed or confined space. The aerosol is sprayed into an enclosed cylindrical test vessel containing a burning candle to observe whether an ignition occurs.
The Foam Flammability testing is used to determine the flammability of an aerosol spray emitted in the form of a foam, mousse, gel, or paste. The aerosol is sprayed onto a watch glass and an ignition source is introduced in the vapor space above the aerosol contents. If the aerosol ignites, the height of the flame and the duration of the combustion are recorded.
The Heat of Combustion testing is used to determine the heat released, or energy, when the liquid components of an aerosol undergo complete combustion with oxygen at standard conditions.
The results from the Ignition Distance, Enclosed Space Ignition, Foam Flammability, and/or Heat of Combustion tests characterize an aerosol as either being non-flammable, flammable, or extremely flammable. The classification of aerosols is critical in determining proper packaging and shipping groups for transportation purposes.
The flammable liquids classification is determined by evaluating the flash point of the liquid. The packing group is then assigned based on the range at which the flash point of the liquid falls within.
The Burning Rate test is used to classify materials as “flammable solids”. The test involves exposing a powder train (250 mm x 20 mm x 10 mm) to a flame or hot wire with a temperature of 1000°C. Classification is then based on the materials burning rate.
The Self-Heating Substances test is used to determine if substances are “spontaneously combustible”. The test involves exposing various quantities of sample to temperatures of 100°C, 120°C and 140°C for a period of 24 hours. During the exposure time, the temperature of the sample is monitored for exothermic activity. Classification is then based on the occurrence of exothermic activity and the size and temperature at which it occurred.
The Dangerous When Wet test is used to determine if the material is capable of generating flammable gases when it comes into contact with water. This is a multistep test that involves exposing the material to small quantities of water and evaluating if flammable gases are generated. Classification is then based on the evidence of flammable gas evolution and the rate at which these gases evolve.
The Solid Oxidizing Substance test is used to identify if a material is has hazardous oxidizing properties. The test involves mixing the sample with various quantities of a known combustible material and comparing the burning characteristics to that of a known oxidizer/fuel mixture. Classification is then based upon how intensely the sample burns.
Results from these tests will identify if your material falls into one of these categories and, if so, the degree of danger these materials present.
The Oxidizing Liquids test is used to identify if a material has hazardous oxidizing properties. Specifically, this test method is designed to measure the potential for a liquid substance to increase the burning rate or burning intensity of a combustible substance. The test involves mixing the sample with a known combustible material and comparing the burning characteristics to that of a known oxidizer/fuel mixture. Classification is based upon how quickly and intensely the sample burns which then determines the necessary packing group for the sample.
Our team is happy to help train your staff in the understanding of technical issues, process safety programs or audits, regulations and more. We perform process safety audits as part of a comprehensive hazards analysis and can work with you to make sure your staff is supplied with skills training needs in many ways including:
Level I - Gap Analysis
Level II - training & consulting
Level III - Program Development and Implementation
Partial List of Services Offered:
• Reviews and upgrades of all your safety process systems and regulatory requirements
• VPP Consulting
• Audits, reviews, and upgrades of all your Operating, Safety, and Maintenance Procedures
• Training program evaluations for both completeness and effectiveness (from technical skills to professional development) and upgrades where
• Reviews and upgrades of your program elements such as Employee Participation and Process Safety Information for effectiveness and completeness
• Work process effectiveness evaluations and upgrades
• Overall organizational development (e.g., motivation, work processes)
• Stress reduction
• Evaluations of the effectiveness of communication
We design, custom develop and deliver any site specific training materials needed by your organization. Our Consultants, Engineers and Technical Specialists are available to deliver the classroom, lab or on-the-job training your staff needs. In addition, we will assist with the identification and procurement of commercially available training materials where available.