Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Cable Testing

FAI offers both on-site cable testing and laboratory material testing of your cables. 

LIRA Plant Engineers.jpgOur flagship Non Destructive Examination (NDE) cable testing tool is: LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis).  LIRA performs both a global and local assessment of your cable’s performance.   The global evaluation provides a complete assessment of the cable’s insulation performance.  The LIRA local assessments can locate and localize cable insulation performance (i.e., degradation) issues.

LIRA Features include:

  • In-situ cable testing performs local and global cable assessments 
  • Test all cable sizes from low and medium voltage cables to the high voltage cables used in the transmission and distribution industries
  • Accommodates both shielded and unshielded cables (two or more metallic cores)
  • Damage-free testing methodology using a very low voltage signal (5 VDC or less)
  • Short test time – less than 5 minutes (evaluation can be done elsewhere later)
  • Test inaccessible/buried/underground cables
  • No need to determinate de-energized connections (breakers open) 

LIRA evaluation of Transmission Cables 


The following is a brief summary of a typical LIRA test, using a 3-phase tri-plexed cable as an example.  Other cable types may have a slightly different procedure implemented.

1. Per plant procedures take the cable out of service
2. Ground both cable ends to dissipate all electrical charges
3. If the far end of the cable cannot be grounded, the test end should remain grounded for 24-hours prior to testing to avoid any lingering voltage on the line
4. At the test end of the cable, remove the ground
5. Connect the 2 LIRA test probes to 2 of the 3 phases (i.e., A-phase & B-phase)
6. Perform a LIRA test
7. Move the LIRA test probes to 2 different connections (i.e., A-phase & C-phase)
8. Perform a LIRA test
9. Move the LIRA test probes to the last 2 untested combinations (i.e., B-phase & C-Phase)
10. Re-ground lines
11. Move to other side of cable (if possible) and perform the same test sequence 

Lira%20-%20Alligator%20Clips LIRA%20On%20site%20Testing%20of%20a%20Transmission%20cable Lira%20Graph

Simple LIRA test lead connection via alligator clips. Shown is LIRA connection to ground and a Transmission cable
LIRA On -Site Testing of a Transmission cable
Example LIRA output, with anomaly at 7.4 m



We use the HV Diagnostics Tan Delta test set for on-site evaluations.  Tan Delta / Dissipation Factor testing of MV cables is one of the most widely used and effective non-destructive methods of detecting aging and degradation in MV cables. 

Ten Delta


Hipot Test is an abbreviation for high potential (high voltage) Test and it is also known as Dielectric Withstand Test. A hipot test checks for “good isolation.”



FAI offers LIRA portable cable testing services and products

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