Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

Containment Spray Nozzle Testing

Posted by The Fauske Team on 07.09.19

By John Lojek, PE, Principal Engineer, Analysis and Testing, Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC and Kevin Ramsden, Nuclear Services Chief Engineer, Fauske & Associates, LLC

HubSpot Video

At the top of the containment vessel of pressurized water reactors, hundreds of spray nozzles are positioned to provide a mechanism for cooling during a postulated event. Since operation of the containment spray system is not feasible during normal operations, confirmation of the flow path is typically performed using gas flow. At our test facility, we were able to replicate the flow rate of one of these spray nozzles.

This high-speed video shows a sudden inrush of water with debris to the nozzle and an eventual steady-state nozzle spray flow. The design of the nozzle allows for a droplet size and flow rate to adequately cool containment to prevent over pressurization. The flow rate is about equal to 14 gpm or 5 - 6x the flow rate of a standard shower head. In this experiment, upstream pressure transmitters and flow meters provided information relevant to match the design conditions. A custom developed National Instruments LabVIEW program was used to monitor and acquire data. After baselining the facility, sensitivity studies were conducted to determine adequate nozzle performance. Utilizing a significant foundation of debris transport design and testing experience, the performance of a single spray nozzle with different debris conditions of varying size distributions was investigated.

Fauske & Associates, LLC and Westinghouse have long histories of thermal hydraulic testing and analysis and state-of-the-art laboratories that can be used for full-scale industrial testing services of power plant components and systems. This is one example of a type of test that can be conducted.

Solving and testing complex fluid problems are part of unique full service lab and engineering service capability.

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Topics: nuclear safety, pressurized water reactor, nuclear, industrial safety, Containment spray


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