Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Gas and Vapor

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

Adiabatic Calorimetry
Data demonstrate the consequences of process upsets, such as failed equipment or improper procedures, and guide mitigation strategies including Emergency Relief System (ERS) design
Reaction Calorimetry
Data yield heat and gas removal requirements to control the desired process chemistry
Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Cable Testing
Evaluate electrical cables to demonstrate reliability and identify defects or degradation
Equipment Qualification (EQ)
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Water Hammer
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent unwanted hydraulic pressure transients in process piping
Acoustic Vibration
Identify and eliminate potential sources of unwanted vibration in piping and structural systems
Gas & Air Intrusion
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent intrusion of gas or air in piping systems
ISO/IEC 17025:2017

Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing

ISO 9001:2015
Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO 9001:2015
Dust Hazards Analysis
Evaluate your process to identify combustible dust hazards and perform dust explosion testing
On-Site Risk Management
On-site safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up
DIERS Methodology
Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods
Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safely handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

FATE™ & Facility Modeling

FATE (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program.

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical
Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid, flow, and electric power systems
Hydrogen Safety
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Thermal Hydraulics
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Nuclear Safety
Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant
Radioactive Waste
Safety analysis to underpin decomissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials
Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

Effects of Temperature on LOC of Dimethyl Sulfuxide Mixed With Higher Vapor Pressure Solvent

Posted by Fauske & Associates on 11.29.17

By: T.J. Frawley, Flammability Project and Lab Manager, Fauske & Associates, LLC

Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) is an extremely versatile solvent with uses spread across multiple industries. It is a by-product of the wood industry, has many uses in the medical field (although some uses are controversial), is an effective solvent due its high solubility, and can be used as a reaction solvent in manufacturing (

DMSO’s effectiveness is partially due to the relatively nonvolatile nature of the substance when compared to other solvents. It has a high boiling point of 189°C and a low vapor pressure. The vapors are quite dense, with a vapor density of 2.70. Air has a vapor density of 1.0. The combination of dense vapors and low vapor pressure contribute to its, again, relatively high flash point temperature of 87°C.

Solvent - Flashpoint Chart

From a process safety standpoint, as long as the process is ran below the 87°C with DMSO alone, there is little risk. However, once another solvent with a lower flash point is mixed with DMSO, the flash point of that mixture will drop below 87°C, creating an explosive environment. If the process requires higher temperatures and high pressures, the danger increases with additional each degree and millibar.

If you are reading this, I feel safe in assuming that you are aware of the fire triangle and the hazards that exist working with the boundaries of that three-corners geometric shape of fire and fury. Before you think to mitigate the hazard through vent sizing or any other method, let us discuss prevention.

Your product is fuel. Cannot eliminate that leg of the triangle. And while you can attempt to reduce the exposure of your process to an ignition source, it is near impossible to eliminate every single, minute, possible, feasible, conceptual, source of ignition.

This leaves our final leg of the triangle, Oxygen. Here is where the Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) test comes into play. If the process is anaerobic, you can completely inert your process with Nitrogen or Argon. This can get expensive as Nitrogen is not cheap, Argon less so. So you perform an LOC test to determine the lowest percentage of oxygen needed to sustain flammable propagation. And you run your process beneath that number. You are now on the off ramp exiting the danger zone.

But engineer beware. As the temperature increases, the amount of Oxygen needed to propagate an ignition decreases.

Assuming at 1:1 ratio mixture by volume of DMSO and another solvent with a flash point lower DMSO, the LOC of the mixture will decrease as the temperature increases. At lower temperatures the partial pressure of the mixture’s vapors will consist mostly of the other solvent. Not enough of the DMSO has vaporized to propagate an ignition in environments that are starved of oxygen. For example, say Sample A has an LOC of 10% O2 at 14.7 psia at 100°C and DMSO has an LOC of 6.5% O2 at 14.7 psia at 100°C. The LOC of the mixture of Sample A and DMSO will be closer to 10% O2 because the partial pressure will consist of a greater percentage of the less dense vapors of Sample A.

Oxygen - Temperature Ratio DMSO


However, as the temperature increases, so too does the vapor pressure of the DMSO. Thus, the partial pressure of the vapor is comprised more of DMSO molecules. The LOC of the mixture will begin to drastically decrease, moving away from the LOC of Sample A and beginning to reflect an LOC closer to that of DMSO.

The moral of the story is to beware when working with DMSO within a process. It is a very useful and diverse product that spans industries. The presence of DMSO drastically lowers the LOC of a mixture as temperatures increase.

For more information on FAI flammability services, contact T.J. Frawley at 630-887-5289 or 





Topics: Flammability


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