Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

High Pressure VSP2 Calorimetry – A Unique Technique to Get Needed Data

Posted by The Fauske Team on 10.13.21

By Gabe Wood, Senior Chemical Engineer at Fauske & Associates, LLC.

The versatile Vent Sizing Package 2 (VSP2) was originally developed as the DIERS Bench Scale Apparatus in 1985 until it was commercialized by FAI in 1987 as the VSP. This low thermal inertia calorimeter is capable of simulating a small scale reactor due to its effective stirring and multiple fill ports for metered or shot additions. The VSP2 collects temperature and pressure data over time to determine the temperature and pressure rise rates of a runaway chemical reaction as a function of temperature and these rates are directly scalable to large production vessels due to the low phi factor.

VSP2 Super Heater for High Pressure and Temperature Operation

The standard VSP2 containment vessel has a maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of 1900 psig. To operate safely, test pressures are usually limited to 1400 pounds of pressure. This is sufficient to collect low thermal inertia vent sizing data for most processes. However, some processes do operate at higher pressures, or a closed system test may be needed on non-condensable gas-generating chemistry where a much higher pressure capability is required to study the entire reaction. For these unique cases, we have the ability to convert our standard VSP2 system into a high pressure system. A 5,000 psig containment vessel is used along with a modified solenoid control box for pressure balancing and a high pressure nitrogen cylinder. This system is now capable of safely testing up to 4,000 psig, while still using the same lightweight VSP2 test cells which allow for the collection of low thermal inertia data which are optimal for relief system design. To accommodate for heat losses associated with high pressures, an additional super heater (see picture) is employed to provide the desired adiabatic conditions, even at high temperature and pressure.

This high pressure capability along with test data will be discussed in a presentation given at the upcoming Fall DIERS meeting Friday, October 15 (10:45-11:15am eastern) titled High Pressure Calorimetry Testing in a Low Thermal Inertia VSP2 System. Gabe Wood, Senior Chemical Engineer at Fauske & Associates, LLC.

Please contact Gabe at wood@fauske.com to discuss this technique and how it can be employed.

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Topics: VSP2


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