Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Gas and Vapor

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

Adiabatic Calorimetry
Data demonstrate the consequences of process upsets, such as failed equipment or improper procedures, and guide mitigation strategies including Emergency Relief System (ERS) design
Reaction Calorimetry
Data yield heat and gas removal requirements to control the desired process chemistry
Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Cable Testing
Evaluate electrical cables to demonstrate reliability and identify defects or degradation
Equipment Qualification (EQ)
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Water Hammer
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent unwanted hydraulic pressure transients in process piping
Acoustic Vibration
Identify and eliminate potential sources of unwanted vibration in piping and structural systems
Gas & Air Intrusion
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent intrusion of gas or air in piping systems
ISO/IEC 17025:2017

Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing

ISO 9001:2015
Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO 9001:2015
Dust Hazards Analysis
Evaluate your process to identify combustible dust hazards and perform dust explosion testing
On-Site Risk Management
On-site safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up
DIERS Methodology
Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods
Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safely handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

FATE™ & Facility Modeling

FATE (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program.

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical
Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid, flow, and electric power systems
Hydrogen Safety
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Thermal Hydraulics
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Nuclear Safety
Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant
Radioactive Waste
Safety analysis to underpin decomissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials
Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


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With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

The What and When of NFPA 652

Posted by Fauske & Associates on 04.12.19

by Mark Yukich,  Customer Service and Business Development, Fauske & Associates, LLC

This blog was originally published in CAM Magazine's April 2019 Issue and has been republished with permission from the author. Click here to view the original article

It is very possible that NFPA 652 and the requirement for a Dust Hazards Analysis (DHA) is something that general contractors, architects, engineers and many others in the construction industry have encountered during one of their projects. The overall impact of the NFPA standard is that a DHA is to be completed by September 7, 2020, where a facility has identified combustion materials present within their facility. The following will demonstrate what this standard means and how to address the standard effectively.

What Is NFPA 652?

combustible dust signIn NFPA 652, the term “Dust Hazards Analysis” or DHA is introduced when it was originally issued in 2015. This is designed to differentiate from the more complex Process Hazard Analysis or PHA required by the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) program for the chemical process safety industry. Industrial and academic experts in the area of combustible dust, fire and explosion safety guided the formation of NFPA 652. Its purpose is to give personnel a single source for information on the fundamentals of safe handling combustible dust and powders in an industrial setting. The standard also directs users to commodity specific standards such as the following, which offer material and production specific guidance:

• NFPA 654 – Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing and Handling
of Combustible Particulate Solids
• NFPA 61 – Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities
• NFPA 484 – Standard Combustible Metals
• NFPA 664 – Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities

The principles discussed within NFPA 652 focuses on fuel containment, controlling ignition sources and limiting the spread of a combustion event by identifying potential risks in the process. These are the elements that can be found by conducting a DHA, which will need to be revalidated at least every 5 years.

When Will NFPA 652 Be in Effect?

NFPA 652 is an active standard, so steps should be taken right away to ensure that your facility is following the requirements. The deadline that was originally issued when NFPA 652 was first released in 2015 has been extended to take effect by September 7, 2020.

The reason for an implementation deadline for the DHA is to encourage that proactive actions are taken in completing the assessment. The NFPA standard is not requesting a shutdown or redesign of every industrial facility where combustible dust is present. The DHA will be used to encourage taking steps towards completing a DHA to perform risk identification within the facility to reduce the risk of a dust deflagration or explosion.

How to Start Compiling a DHA

Even though the deadline for the requirement has been pushed back, local authorities having jurisdictions (AHJs) are still expecting that there are steps being taken towards understanding your risks. Here are a few steps that you should consider when developing your DHA:

Dust Combustion PentagramHazard Identification – Do you need a DHA?

Have the fugitive dust being generated within your process tested to determine if your material is explosible (dust cloud) or combustible (pile or layer). If you find your material to be a potential risk for an explosible and/or combustible event, you are required to document a DHA within your facility.

OSHA offers other combustible dust and ignition source control recommendations, as well as guidance on injury and damage control methods. The following are some key recommendations, presented in no particular order:

  • Enforce a program that includes dust inspections, testing, housekeeping and ignition source control
  • Use appropriate dust collection systems and filters
  • Limit escape of dust from equipment or ventilation systems
  • Use surfaces that limit dust accumulation and ease cleaning
  • Regularly check for dust residue in all areas, including hidden locations
  • Clean without creating dust cloud  around ignition sources
  • Operate vacuum cleaners certified for dust collection
  • Use appropriate electrical equipment
  • Keep heated surfaces and systems away from dust
  • Create an emergency plan

Once your team has reviewed the items in the list above, you have taken foundational steps towards starting your DHA. These items can give you a good idea for mitigation steps that need to be implemented. A good place to start while developing your team is to have a group of people with a working knowledge in each individual phase of the process. Have your team focus on answering 6 fundamental questions:

  1. What does “normal” look like for the process?
  2. What can go wrong with the process and how?
  3. How bad and how likely can that “event” be?
  4. What protections currently exist to avoid the “event”?
  5. What is the risk of continuing to operate the process as it stands now?
  6. Is additional protection warranted, if so, what?

Where to Focus within Your Facility?

When determining the hazard identification of your process, you want to focus on areas where there is fugitive dust escaping from the process and settling on elevated surfaces. If you have a dust collector, this is the first place to start by pulling sample from the filter media or the bin below the dust collector. This is where you can pull the roughly 1-2 pounds of sample needed to run the testing needed.

If you have a dust collector, you want to review the facility to make sure that the proper fugitive dust collection is in place and is properly limiting the amount of dust being generated outside of the point of collection. In a process area where dust collection is not present, take the time to determine how the dust is being generated and where the material is settling on elevated surfaces, like i-beams and light fixtures.

Ideally, you want to have one team member that is assigned the role of team lead and meeting facilitator who has experience conducting a DHA. Once the review is completed, you want to document the information obtained in the analysis. The goal is to move forward and continually walk through the process to ensure recommended safety measures are maintained and if any adjustments are needed. Another key component is to pass on the information gathered to  your team, so that they know the hazard to be aware of and ensure the safety measures are continually implemented after personnel changes. In short, this is not a linear activity, but a cyclical one that is repeated continually for the life of the process.

Why Complete the DHA at your Facility?

The requirement established in NFPA 652 is one good reason to complete the DHA, but the safety of your employees and facility should be the primary reason. OSHA currently follows NFPA standards to ensure that a facility is staying safe while handling explosible and/or combustible materials. Currently, OSHA will point to The General Dust Clause, Section (a) (1) of the OSHA standard to enforce safety guidelines for combustible dust safety.

Taking on a DHA for your facility can be a daunting task, but it is one that is necessary to recognize any potential hazards. However, if you take it one process and one step at time, you can make your way towards having a safer operation. The DHA should develop a plan of action to maintain good housekeeping, safety training to your employees and properly protected equipment and electrical components. Your employees are a great resource to utilize where safety measures may need to be explored. Take the proactive steps towards a safer operation in your facility today.

 3 Step Approach To Dust Hazards Analysis (DHA) 

About the Author:

Mr. Yukich supports the Customer Service and Business Development efforts across all of Fauske & Associates’ business units and specializes in Combustible Dust and On-Site process safety consulting. Mark will be at the Michigan Safety Conference April 16-17 in Grand Rapids at booth # 315. 630-887-5788. 

CAM Magazine is published monthly by the Construction Association of Michigan, 43636 Woodward Ave.,
P.O. Box 3204, Bloomfield Hills, MI 48302-3204 (248) 972-1000. 



Topics: Combustible Dust


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