Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion & reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

UN-DOT

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Biological

Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades

Radioactive

Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic safety calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment (DSC/ARC supplies, CPA, C80, Super Stirrer)

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory

FERST

Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions

FATE

Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities

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Recent Posts

5 Steps to Understanding Combustible Dust Electrical Classification

Posted by The Fauske Team on 07.22.13

Layer Ignition Test (LIT) Chemical Risk Management and Nuclear Plant Safety   Layer Ignition Test (LIT)

Important Differences between NFPA 499 and OSHA Requirements

When dealing with electrical area classification for combustible dusts, there are several different approaches suggested by scientific and regulatory bodies such as the NFPA, OSHA, and NMAB. The one you choose could have a significant impact on your plant’s safety, and could be costly. 

1. The historical practice has been to use the recommendations from the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) report 353-3-80, “Classification of Combustible Dusts in Accordance with the National Electrical Code”, which defines dusts having Ignition Sensitivity (IS) ratios greater than or equal to 0.2 or Explosion Severity (ES) ratios greater than or equal to 0.5 to be appreciable explosion hazards requiring electrical equipment suitable for Class II locations.

2. These ratios are relative measures relying on extensive testing (such as the Pmax, KSt, MIE, MEC, and MIT). The ratios compare these explosibility characteristics of the dust under consideration against Pittsburgh Pulverized Coal.  OSHA has adopted the NMAB interpretation of a Class II dust in their combustible dust national emphases program.

3. Recent changes to the recommended practice NFPA 499 stipulate that only a Go/No-Go explosibility screening test per ASTM E1226 is needed to determine if a sample requires special attention for electrical classification followed by a Layer Ignition Test (LIT) and a Minimum Ignition Temperature Test (MIT) for dust clouds to establish appropriate electrical “T”-codes, thus replacing the former ES and IS ratio determination. This paradigm shift seeks to make a hazardous location determination more accessible (i.e., cost effective); however, it ignores key information that is essential for safe dust management.

4. The explosibility data which constitutes the ES and IS ratios can be used in the design of deflagration relief vents, deflagration suppression and isolation systems, housekeeping level requirements, set pneumatic transport limits, help establish electrostatic hazard avoidance like grounding and bonding protocols and provide guidance on safe operation temperatures. In fact, these data will be required for safe operation of a given process.

5. The Go/No-Go test alone does not provide the data required for effective explosion mitigation engineering. While these tests increase the costs of sample analysis, they provide the data that could have prevented an explosion.

When considering dust, different regulatory bodies have different approaches. If you have questions about what approach is appropriate for your material, please contact Dr. Ashok Dastidar, Fauske & Associates, LLC at 630-887-5249 or via email at Dastidar@fauske.com

Topics: Combustible dust, explosibility test, MIT test, dust test, explosion mitigation, LIT test, electrical classification, electrical classification dust

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