Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Gas and Vapor

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

Adiabatic Calorimetry
Data demonstrate the consequences of process upsets, such as failed equipment or improper procedures, and guide mitigation strategies including Emergency Relief System (ERS) design
Reaction Calorimetry
Data yield heat and gas removal requirements to control the desired process chemistry
Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Cable Testing
Evaluate electrical cables to demonstrate reliability and identify defects or degradation
Equipment Qualification (EQ)
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Water Hammer
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent unwanted hydraulic pressure transients in process piping
Acoustic Vibration
Identify and eliminate potential sources of unwanted vibration in piping and structural systems
Gas & Air Intrusion
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent intrusion of gas or air in piping systems
ISO/IEC 17025:2017

Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing

ISO 9001:2015
Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO 9001:2015
Dust Hazards Analysis
Evaluate your process to identify combustible dust hazards and perform dust explosion testing
On-Site Risk Management
On-site safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up
DIERS Methodology
Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods
Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safely handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

FATE™ & Facility Modeling

FATE (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program.

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical
Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid, flow, and electric power systems
Hydrogen Safety
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Thermal Hydraulics
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Nuclear Safety
Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant
Radioactive Waste
Safety analysis to underpin decomissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials
Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

Helpful Hints for Handling Air-Sensitive Materials

Posted by Fauske & Associates on 10.28.20

When calorimetry tests involve air sensitive reagents there are a variety of techniques available for handling them. The particular technique or procedure depends on the nature of the chemical and type of test being performed (open vs. closed VSP2 test, for example).


The most common method for inerting the atmosphere of a closed VSP2 test cell is to evacuate the headspace and backfill it with low pressure (~10 psig) nitrogen several times prior to leaving the headspace evacuated for charging the sample through the VSP2 fill line. To maintain an inert atmosphere when withdrawing a liquid into a syringe for charging to the VSP2, no air is allowed in the syringe (or it is purged out prior to charging). After installing the syringe on the VSP2 Luer-lok elbow adapter and charging the contents to the initially evacuated test cell, the plunger is pulled up partially (to about 5 to 10 ml, depending on the material and quantity) and then pushed back down, to flush the fill line of any holdup. If the sample is volatile, a two-way stopcock is commonly used to isolated and prevent evaporation from the syringe to permit accurate weight measurements.



Figure 1. VSP2 fill tube connection with Luer-lok elbow and 3-way stopcock for addition of air sensitive reagents


For liquid samples with no tolerance for even a very small amount of air, a three-way stopcock can be installed on the Luer-lok elbow to permit feeding low pressure nitrogen from the middle (side) port, as shown in Figure 1. With this set-up, nitrogen is first fed to inert the Luer-lok elbow. Prior to charging the liquid (from a syringe equipped with a two-way stopcock mounted in the upright position), nitrogen is directed upward to inert the small space between the syringe and the three-way stopcock. To charge the sample, the three-way stopcock is positioned to permit flow from the syringe to the VSP2 fill port. After charging the sample through the straight-through pathway, nitrogen from the side branch of the stopcock is used to backfill the syringe for flushing the fill line. This has been used for samples which are highly sensitive to air or moisture.


If reagents are air sensitive and not contained in a bottle with a septum, normally a nitrogen-inerted glove box is used to charge either the test cell (which may be capped off for running a closed system test) or a syringe (equipped with a stopcock). Once outside of the glove box, the above methods are useful to maintain an inert atmosphere as a sample is charged to the test cell from a pre-loaded syringe. For open system tests, either the entire test cell and heater assembly can be installed into the insulated containment vessel in the glove box, complete with the lid, or perhaps only the vented test cell, depending on the nature of the reagent. In the latter case, a Swagelok cap may be loosely placed on the vent line to keep air out, and the cap is removed just prior to sealing the containment vessel. In this case, one may pad the containment vessel with Argon to help maintain inerting while the test cell/heater assembly is bundled up and placed in the containment vessel.



Figure 2. Custom VSP2 test setup for air sensitive and toxic gas reagents


For handling higher vapor pressure liquids combined with air sensitivity, a Hamilton gas-tight syringe may be used (depending on the pressure). There is a newer model available which includes an integrated Luer-lok stopcock and a plunger lock to prevent the plunger from coming out, Hamilton’s Sample Lock. This adds a safety feature which nevertheless must be used within the appropriate pressure rating specified for the syringe. The commonly used stainless steel piston, recommended by FAI for injection of liquids against high pressures (rated up to 1000 psi), may be loaded in a glove box for air sensitive reagents.


Figure 2 shows a custom setup for safe addition of a colorless toxic gas reagent. The photo was taken prior to the start of the test, during which the sash would have been at the appropriate safe height. Wet pH paper is strategically positioned as a backup indicator to handheld sensor instruments. Note the VSP2 vessel is easily cooled using a tray of dry ice with no interruption of stirring. Gas addition is quantified by measuring the pressure changes in the known volume of a small accumulator bomb on the valved feed.


The VSP2 allows for creative and safe test design. We are happy to share our experience on how to make the best use of this versatile instrument. To get any questions answered, please reach out to contact the Fauske Team below!

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Topics: VSP2


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