Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Gas and Vapor

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

Adiabatic Calorimetry
Data demonstrate the consequences of process upsets, such as failed equipment or improper procedures, and guide mitigation strategies including Emergency Relief System (ERS) design
Reaction Calorimetry
Data yield heat and gas removal requirements to control the desired process chemistry
Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Cable Testing
Evaluate electrical cables to demonstrate reliability and identify defects or degradation
Equipment Qualification (EQ)
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Water Hammer
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent unwanted hydraulic pressure transients in process piping
Acoustic Vibration
Identify and eliminate potential sources of unwanted vibration in piping and structural systems
Gas & Air Intrusion
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent intrusion of gas or air in piping systems
ISO/IEC 17025:2017

Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing

ISO 9001:2015
Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO 9001:2015
Dust Hazards Analysis
Evaluate your process to identify combustible dust hazards and perform dust explosion testing
On-Site Risk Management
On-site safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up
DIERS Methodology
Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods
Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safely handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

FATE™ & Facility Modeling

FATE (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program.

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical
Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid, flow, and electric power systems
Hydrogen Safety
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Thermal Hydraulics
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Nuclear Safety
Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant
Radioactive Waste
Safety analysis to underpin decomissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials
Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

Lithium-Ion Battery Scoping Test Using the VSP2

Posted by Fauske & Associates on 08.29.23

Experimental Set-up for Lithium-ion Battery Scoping TestBattery safety is a much-discussed topic, and its importance continues to remain front and center as the energy storage industry continues to expand. Fauske & Associates flammability team actively supports customers with battery safety testing. Up to now we have primarily focused on flammability analysis of the gas that is released during battery thermal events. We experimentally determine the LFL, Pmax, and Kg as required by industry accepted standards such as ANSI/CAN/UL 9540A Ed. 4 which references a number of other standards (e.g., ASHRAE, ASTM, EN, ISO, NFPA and Canadian standards). These data are used to ensure the enclosure ventilation system and explosion relief panels are adequate for the installation.

Historically, Fauske and our customers have found adiabatic calorimetry to be a useful method for evaluating thermal stability of battery materials. More recently a number of our calorimetry users have inquired on how they might adapt their existing VSP2 calorimeter for testing of battery components, from cell sizes to large assemblies, and some research organizations have been doing this for a number of years already. 

Of course, battery testing instruments such as the THT ES-ARC have been available for years, but our customers indicate there is interest in applying the versatile VSP2 as a complementary technology option. This article shares results from a successful proof-of-concept “scoping” experiment using the VSP2 to study the thermal runaway of a battery exposed to external heating. Please contact us to learn about more recent developments.

Detailed Description of Scoping Test:

The standard VSP2 system was supplemented with an additional power supply and electrical load device, which for convenience were controlled separately from the VSP2 software. Also, for added safety the standard 4-liter containment vessel was replaced with a larger pressure vessel available in the FAI flammability lab. Results demonstrate the efficacy of the VSP2 for analyzing battery explosions, and the method is scalable to larger batteries.

Screenshot 2023-08-14 at 3.48.23 PMOne 2500 mAh capacity Lithium-ion cell of an 18650 cylindrical format was installed into a custom heating assembly and placed inside of a 70L pressure vessel under ambient conditions. Figures 1 to 3 show key aspects of the test setup.

A programmable DC power supply, a programmable electrical load, and a custom LabVIEW program were used to pre-condition the lithium-ion cell. Pre-conditioning consisted of a charging phase followed by a discharging phase and finally a charging phase to 100% state of charge (SOC) per the manufacturer’s specifications.

The VSP2 control software was configured to heat the lithium-ion cell at a constant rate from ambient to 350°C. The temperature, pressure, and lithium-ion cell voltage were measured and recorded. Additionally, the auxiliary and guard heater control power were recorded. The lithium-ion cell voltage was measured using the custom LabVIEW program and pre-conditioning equipment while the VSP2 was used to record the temperatures and pressure and control the heaters.

Screenshot 2023-08-14 at 3.51.21 PMData on temperature and pressure are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5, respectively. (Data files from the VSP2 PC and LabVIEW PC were manually overlayed since automatic data syncing was not available.) At a cell surface temperature of 135°C, the cell voltage dropped sharply from 4.2 volts to 0 volts. At about 37 min at a cell surface temperature of 148°C, a small but noticeable thermal event (not discernable on the scale of Figure 4) was observed coincident with a slight increase in containment vessel pressure, marking the moment of cell venting. During this event, the voltage of the cell increased to approximately 1 volt and then gradually decayed towards 0 volts. Following this off-gassing event, the temperature rise rate of the cell surface temperature began to increase above the imposed heating rate of the main (aux) heater and the exothermic runaway proceeded to accelerate leading to a spike in temperature and pressure at about 43 min. The containment vessel pressure reached a maximum of 13.6 psig. Following the pressure spike, the outer surface temperature of the battery measured 583°C at the thermocouple position near the positive terminal and a maximum recorded temperature of 698°C at the center position.

The heaters were disabled, and the vessel contents were allowed to cool down. A gas sample of the containment vessel headspace was collected for later analysis. Figure 6 shows the battery post-test.

We are continuing to improve our test method and hardware options, keeping in line with established standards, and look forward to presenting more data and information in the near future. Please contact us for further details.

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Screenshot 2023-08-14 at 3.53.34 PM


J. P. Burelbach, ARSST Experiments to Evaluate Solvent Compatibility with Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP™), Fauske & Associates, 211th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (ECS), Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 6, 2007

M. V. Yakovleva, B. Fitch, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, Progress on Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP™), an Enabling Material for a New Generation of Li-ion Batteries, FMC Corporation, 24th International Battery Seminar & Exhibit, Florida (March 19-22, 2007)

C-Y Jhu, Y-W Wang, Chi-Min Shu, J-C Chang, and H-C Wu, Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium-ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter, NYUST, JTJC, ITRI (Taiwan) Journal of Hazardous Materials 192 (2011) 99–107

Topics: Reactive Chemicals


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