Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

Pre-Carius? Carius Tube Testing for Hazardous Materials and Reactions

Posted by The Fauske Team on 09.27.17

By David Dale, Scientific & Medical Products Limited and Jeff Griffin, Fauske & Associates, LLC

FAI Carius TubeThe Carius tube apparatus is an old-school device used to thermally test materials on a small scale. The technology is particularly helpful for understanding potentially hazardous reactions or materials. While other tools like the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) or Advanced Reactive System Screening Tool (ARSST) are good for screening potentially hazardous reactions and providing more robust data, the Carius tube apparatus still has its place in the process safety assessors armoury.

When we say the device is ‘old-school’ – we mean it. The Carius tube was invented by Georg Ludwig Carius in the late 1800’s. Compare this to other screening / kinetic evaluation tools like the DSC, invented by Watson and O’Neil in 1962, the Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC), invented by scientists from DOW Chemical in the late 1960’s and the ARSST, invented by Fauske & Associates in the early 1980’s.

The Carius tube apparatus works by placing approximately 10 grams of sample in a heavy-walled sealed glass tube and then placing it in an oven. The oven temperature is ramped at a controlled rate, typically 0.5 K/min. Temperature and pressure of the test cell are monitored and recorded in order to assess the thermal stability of a test sample upon heating. Speaking of heat – it is an interesting aside that George Ludwig Carius worked for several years with Richard Bunsen (of Bunsen burner fame).

So, getting back to the task at hand, the Carius tube method is most popular in Europe, where a preponderance of existing data from the device leads companies to perform this test on new samples in order to have a benchmark for reactivity. Like a master carpenter, a full service testing lab will have all of the tools in the shop to help customers solve process safety problems, no matter how simple or complex they may seem.  

If you’d like further information regarding Carius tube testing or other services offered by Fauske & Associates, please contact Dave Dale at dave@scimed.co.uk or Jeff Griffin at griffin@fauske.com. www.fauske.com

About the authors:

David Dale, MSc worked for 30 years as a process safety advisor for Pfizer before joining Scientific and Medical Products (SciMed) in 2007. He loves the Carius tube like an old friend.

Jeff Griffin, MBA is Global Director of Business Development and Strategy for Fauske & Associates, LLC. He enjoys obscure history and gets easily lost while browsing Wikipedia.

FAI Process Safety Newsletter

 #thermal hazards

Topics: process safety, thermal stability, ARSST, thermal hazard, nuclear, differential scanning calorimeter, Carius tube


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