Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Gas and Vapor

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature

Adiabatic Calorimetry
Data demonstrate the consequences of process upsets, such as failed equipment or improper procedures, and guide mitigation strategies including Emergency Relief System (ERS) design
Reaction Calorimetry
Data yield heat and gas removal requirements to control the desired process chemistry
Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents

Cable Testing
Evaluate electrical cables to demonstrate reliability and identify defects or degradation
Equipment Qualification (EQ)
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Water Hammer
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent unwanted hydraulic pressure transients in process piping
Acoustic Vibration
Identify and eliminate potential sources of unwanted vibration in piping and structural systems
Gas & Air Intrusion
Analysis and testing to identify and prevent intrusion of gas or air in piping systems
ISO/IEC 17025:2017

Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing

ISO 9001:2015
Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO 9001:2015
Dust Hazards Analysis
Evaluate your process to identify combustible dust hazards and perform dust explosion testing
On-Site Risk Management
On-site safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up
DIERS Methodology
Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods
Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safely handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

FATE™ & Facility Modeling

FATE (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program.

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical
Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid, flow, and electric power systems
Hydrogen Safety
Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen
Thermal Hydraulics
Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions
Nuclear Safety
Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant
Radioactive Waste
Safety analysis to underpin decomissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials
Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

SAS4A-FATE: A Mechanistic Source Term Analysis Tool for Advanced Reactors

Posted by Fauske & Associates on 03.21.18

By: Sung Jin Lee, Senior Consulting Engineer, Fauske & Associates, LLC

Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) are promoted as having safety advantages over Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in terms of reduced likelihood of core damage and containment failure. LMR’s are also promoted as being capable of addressing markets such as process and district heat applications. Consistent with these features, a goal for LMR licensing is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) compared to an LWR of comparable size.

Justification of a reduced EPZ requires analytical capabilities for Mechanistic Source Term (MST) assessments to predict the system’s response to a broad spectrum of accidents with significant variations in time-scale and consequences. An MST assessment attempts to realistically model the release and transport of radionuclides from their source to the environment for a specific scenario, while accounting for retention and transmutation phenomena along with any associated uncertainties.

Safety analysis of LMRs must consider a wide range of initiating events which cause an imbalance between heat production and removal. They are traditionally grouped in three categories:

  1. Reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), which involve a sudden and rapid insertion of positive reactivity such as a control element/rod withdrawal (CRW)
  2. Loss of flow (LOF) accidents, which imply the inability to provide adequate forced convection flow to cool the core due to primary pump failures
  3. Loss of heat sink (LOHS) accidents, which involve failures in heat removal paths that are relied on during normal operation

Note that the primary coolant of an LMR is kept at near atmospheric pressure and the margin to coolant boiling is greater for LMRs than for LWRs, so the design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is less of a concern for LMRs than for LWRs.

Fauske & Associates, LLC, (FAI) was awarded a Gateway to Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) voucher to collaborate with Argonne National Laboratory to couple the SAS4A safety analysis code with the FATE facility modeling code and to extend SAS4A to accommodate the use of lead as a reactor coolant (SAS4A was originally developed for sodium fast reactors). The SAS4A code will be used to model system transients and fuel failures. Its results will be linked to the FATE code to predict radionuclide transport through the primary coolant, cover gas, containment system, and finally release to the environment. The integrated code package will offer a state-of-the-art radionuclide tracking capability for a spectrum of accident scenarios consistent with the plant dynamic response including the reactivity feedback to support Level 2 and 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments for LMRs. The initial effort will focus on the lead fast reactor design similar to that proposed by Westinghouse, a lead-cooled pool-type fast reactor for which UO2 is considered as a possible fuel option.

The SAS4A code (as part of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code system) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to perform deterministic analysis of design basis and beyond design basis events in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs). Detailed, mechanistic models of steady-state and transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena are employed to describe the response of the reactor core caused by loss of coolant flow, loss of heat rejection, or reactivity insertion. The consequences of single and double-fault accidents (which consider failure of scram systems) are modeled, including fuel and coolant heating, fuel and cladding mechanical behavior, and core reactivity feedbacks. The main objectives of SAS4A are to model transient accident conditions and predict key reactor parameters such as reactivity, fuel and cladding temperatures, and cladding strain. SAS4A also has the capabilities to assess fuel failures, including failure modes, failure location and timing, in-pin and ex-pin fuel motion with their implications on core reactivity, and assessment of fuel damage propagation. The models in SAS4A have been validated with extensive analyses of reactor and plant test data from EBR-II, FFTF and TREAT reactors.

The FATE code was developed by FAI for facility and process modeling and simulation. FATE has capabilities to model heat and mass transfer, fluid flow, and aerosol behavior in a nuclear fuel cycle or chemical processing facility. FATE has been developed and maintained under the NQA-1 Quality Assurance program and its predecessor software won a U.S. Department of Energy Technology Innovation award for Hanford applications. FATE’s primary phenomenological capabilities include a generalized multiple-compartment model and network flow model. A variety of chemical species can be modeled in FATE in condensed or vapor form, using thermophysical property correlations (for example, from the industry-standard DIPPR 801 database). This allows FATE to model a number of different coolants including water, liquid metals, and gases, as well as fission products as generic chemical species in gas, liquid, or aerosol form.

Aerosol transport and deposition are key phenomena in determining the radionuclide retention capacity of the containment. The aerosol model in FATE was validated against the well-known AB5 experiment conducted at Hanford. In this experiment, a sodium vapor source reacted to produce sodium oxide aerosol during a source period of 900 s into a volume of 850m3 at a rate of 0.444 kg/s. Figure 1 shows the FATE aerosol generation and settling results against the AB5 experimental data. The results compare well for a suspended mass history spanning over four orders of magnitude.

Once completed, the SAS4A-FATE code is expected to be a complete mechanistic source term analysis tool for liquid metal reactors. It can be used for licensing advanced reactor designs.

 To discuss or for more information, contact or call 630-323-8750


Your facility may have an innovative idea or need to address similar issues for which FATE can be tailored to suit. If you'd like to learn more about FATE, check out FAI's work on the Development of the Source Term Analysis Tool SAS4A-FATE for Lead-and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors by clicking below. 

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Topics: FATE, Nuclear


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