Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

Flammable Gas & Vapor Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify explosion hazards for vapor and gas mixtures

Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

OSS consulting, adiabatic & reaction calorimetry and consulting

Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

Mechanical, Piping, and Electrical

Engineering and testing to support safe plant operations and develop solutions to problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, electric power systems

Battery Safety

Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

Hydrogen Safety

Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

Decommissioning, Decontamination and Remediation (DD&R)

Safety analysis to underpin decommissioning process at facilities which have produced or used radioactive nuclear materials

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Bespoke testing and modeling services to validate analysis of DD&R processes

Nuclear Overview

Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

Severe Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment

Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

Thermal Hydraulics

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Environmental Qualification (EQ) and Equipment Survivability (ES)

Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


Our highly experienced team keeps you up-to-date on the latest process safety developments.

Process Safety Newsletter

Stay informed with our quarterly Process Safety Newsletters sharing topical articles and practical advice.


With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

VEXTOR Vortex Suppressor:  A Case For Gas - Air Intrusion Elimination

Posted by The Fauske Team on 09.25.19

VEXTOR Suppressing VortexUnder certain conditions, a vortex – a spiraling motion of fluid within a limited area – can form at suction locations in liquid tanks and other fluid reservoirs, such as the containment sump and the refueling water storage tank (RWST) in a nuclear power plant. If a vortex forms it could cause a pump to lose its prime and stall.

Gas or Air intrusion can be split into two categories: discharge and suction piping. As it relates to discharge piping, gas intrusion can potentially lead to a waterhammer transient.  The suction side is much more challenging to define, since more uncertainty is associated with the computational tools currently available in the industry.  The uncertainty increases with the system’s complexity when such features as Tee junctions are considered.  Gas could be introduced into the piping through multiple methods, including entrainment of air due to formation of a vortex. 

Although an increase in fluid submergence levels and/or a modification of operational performance can reduce the possibility of vortex formation; a preferable alternative is to utilize the VEXTORTM vortex suppressor. Once installed at a suction intake, this tool will prevent vortices from forming.

Installing VEXTOR suppresses vortex formation, thereby improving the operation of fluid tanks and reservoirs under a much wider range of levels and operational conditions. By preventing the formation of swirl flows that cause vortices, air intrusion and degraded pump operations will be minimized and even prevented altogether. When properly sized and installed, VEXTOR eliminates gas intrusion caused by vortices.

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States Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) Nuclear Group Manager Jacky Shoulders, "The Water/Air intrusion Vortex Suppressor was developed by FAI to prevent vortices from forming as large tanks of fluid drain. As tanks drain, vortices will form at low tank levels. When vortices form, air is entrained and transported as part of the draining fluid. This entrained air could cause damage or failure of pumps that use the tank as makeup inventory. VEXTOR delays the time at which vortices form hence providing additional inventory and time to use a tank to supply fluid. The FAI VEXTOR is installed at 3 nuclear power plants in the USA."


• The stainless steel (or other material of choice) VEXTOR vortex suppressor is custom designed and configured to meet each customer’s particular needs and specifications

• Once fabricated, VEXTOR is run through a battery of tests, including a demonstration at FAI facility to provide evidence of satisfactory performance and proper suction pipe configuration

• The VEXTOR is often designed in modules so that the large complete unit can fit through manway access holes and the components can easily be installed in an empty or full tank

• VEXTOR has been designed and manufactured under a Nuclear Quality Assurance program that is compliant with 10CFR50 Appendix B and ISO accreditations

VEXTOR on top of suction intake with a large induced circulation in the approach flow
VEXTOR on top of suction intake with a large induced circulation in the approach flow

VEXTOR being removed from the suction intake in the presence of the induced circulation in the approach flow

VEXTOR being removed from the suction intake in the presence of the induced circulation in the approach flow

VEXTOR near the liquid pool surface notice a strong vortex forming

VEXTOR near the liquid pool surface: notice a strong vortex forming

VEXTOR returns to the top of the suction intake and eliminates vortex

VEXTOR returns to the top of the suction intake and eliminates vortex


If you'd like more information on how VEXTOR can solve for your organization, contact us by clicking below.

Contact Us


Topics: air intrusion, vortex, VEXTOR, gas intrusion


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