Hazards Analysis, Code Compliance & Procedure Development

Services to identify process safety hazards and facilitate compliance with established standards and codes.

Combustible Dust Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify dust explosion and reactivity hazards

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Chemical Reactivity Testing

Laboratory testing to quantify reactive chemical hazards, including the possibility of material incompatibility, instability, and runaway chemical reactions

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Fauske & Associates fulfills the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in the field of Testing
DIERS Methodology

Design emergency pressure relief systems to mitigate the consequences of unwanted chemical reactivity and account for two-phase flow using the right tools and methods

Deflagrations (Dust/Vapor/Gas)

Properly size pressure relief vents to protect your processes from dust, vapor, and gas explosions

Effluent Handling

Pressure relief sizing is just the first step and it is critical to safety handle the effluent discharge from an overpressure event

Thermal Stability

Safe storage or processing requires an understanding of the possible hazards associated with sensitivity to variations in temperature


Classification of hazardous materials subject to shipping and storage regulations

Safety Data Sheets

Develop critical safety data for inclusion in SDS documents


Model transport of airborne virus aerosols to guide safe operations and ventilation upgrades


Model transport of contamination for source term and leak path factor analysis

Fire Analysis

Model transport of heat and smoke for fire analysis

Flammable or Toxic Gas

transport of flammable or toxic gas during a process upset

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Onsite safety studies can help identify explosibility and chemical reaction hazards so that appropriate testing, simulations, or calculations are identified to support safe scale up

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Testing to support safe design of batteries and electrical power backup facilities particularly to satisfy UL9540a ed.4

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Testing and consulting on the explosion risks associated with devices and processes which use or produce hydrogen

Spent Fuel

Safety analysis for packaging, transport, and storage of spent nuclear fuel

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Our Nuclear Services Group is recognized for comprehensive evaluations to help commercial nuclear power plants operate efficiently and stay compliant.

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Expert analysis of possible risk and consequences from nuclear plant accidents

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Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

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Testing and analysis to ensure that critical equipment will operate under adverse environmental conditions

Laboratory Testing & Software Capabilities

Testing and modeling services to support resolution of emergent safety issues at a power plant

Adiabatic Safety Calorimeters (ARSST and VSP2)

Low thermal inertial adiabatic calorimeters specially designed to provide directly scalable data that are critical to safe process design

Other Lab Equipment and Parts for the DSC/ARC/ARSST/VSP2 Calorimeters

Products and equipment for the process safety or process development laboratory


Software for emergency relief system design to ensure safe processing of reactive chemicals, including consideration of two-phase flow and runaway chemical reactions


Facility modeling software mechanistically tracks transport of heat, gasses, vapors, and aerosols for safety analysis of multi-room facilities


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With over 40 years of industry expertise, we have a wealth of process safety knowledge to share.

Recent Posts

The VSP2 - is it Still Relevant?

Posted by The Fauske Team on 11.04.20

If you have spent any time in the world of chemical process safety, the story of the Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS), an extensive R&D program sponsored by 29 companies under the auspices of AIChE, is likely a familiar one.  Let’s take a look at the more utilitarian outcome of the DIERS undertaking, the development of the "Bench Scale Apparatus", the low thermal-inertia adiabatic calorimeter known today as the VSP2TM.



As we mark the 35 year anniversary of the original VSP, it begs the question: is the VSP2 still relevant in the world of process safety?  It would be easy to say absolutely yes and just move on, but really one of the best ways to illustrate this view is to look at how the VSP2 revolutionized the process safety testing industry in the first place, to discern if that versatility continues to make it a viable and useful industry tool today.

A primary purpose of DIERS was evaluation of emergency relief system (vent) requirements, including energy and gas release rates for systems under upset conditions and the effect of two-phase flow on the emergency discharge (blowdown) process. Born of the DIERS testing methodology and further expanded upon in 1995, the VSP2 offers many innovative features that make it ideal for obtaining critical upset process design data including: 

  • Utilization of a light-weight test cell design (low thermal inertia) that is configurable to unique customer requirements for testing flexibility to simulate process conditions such as:
    • Loss of cooling or agitation
    • Accumulation or mischarge of reactants
    • Contamination of batch
    • Thermally initiated decomposition
    • Resident incubation time
  • In-situ liquid/gas dosing or sampling
  • Unique heating system that prevents sample heat loss
  • Temperature and pressure rise rates applicable to relief system design 
  • Automated Windows operation
  • Compact modular construction for creative test design
  • High pressure injection or metered injection of reagents
  • Automatic pressure tracking
  • Two-phase blowdown testing

Every day around the world the adiabatic data obtained with the VSP2 are  directly applied to process scale to characterize reactive chemical hazards and risk consequences and to properly size emergency relief systems. The chemical industry continues to evolve with new products and new processes, but there remains an underlying need to know what will happen if things go wrong. Of course there have been tremendous advances in computational simulation since the VSP was first introduced, but setting aside the cost of developing a detailed runaway reaction and venting model even the best model is only as good as the data upon which it is built.

So, is the VSP2 still relevant?  Absolutely.  Industry never sits still, and the VSP2 continues to provide the foundation of critical upset process design data that is important to companies who seek to safely improve their processes as they build their business.  Need more convincing?  Perhaps the biggest indicator of the relevance of the VSP2 is the fact that it is still  used extensively by industry-leading chemical and pharmaceutical companies around the world, including three systems in our own process safety testing laboratory.

Of course, in some thermal hazards applications the VSP2 is not the only tool that can do the job. In fact, at FAI we have a wide variety of complementary instruments in our own labs that we utilize based on the client application. But, in many cases today, we still find the VSP2 to be the most definitive and cost effective option. 

As an industry leader, Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) is constantly seeking ways to improve our own products and the world of process safety, but rest assured that when considering if the VSP2 is still relevant the answer is a resounding Yes! 

For more information, please contact us at info@fauske.com


 Subscribe to FAI's Quarterly "Process Safety News"

Topics: relief venting, Two phase flow, adiabatic calorimetry, emergency relief system design, calorimetry, emergency relief vent, chemical, testing


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